Pipe Friction of Laminar and Turbulent Flow
During flow through pipes, pressure losses occur due to internal friction and friction between the fluid and the wall. When calculating pressure losses, we need to know the friction factor, a dimensionless number. The friction factor is determined with the aid of the Reynolds number, which describes the ratio of inertia forces to friction forces.
FM 100.12 enables the study of the relationship between pressure loss due to fluid friction and velocity in the pipe flow. Additionally, the pipe friction factor is determined.
The experimental unit includes a small diameter pipe section in which the laminar and turbulent flow is generated. The Reynolds number and the pipe friction factor are determined from the flow rate and pressure loss. In turbulent flow, the pipe is supplied directly from the water supply. The constant pressure at the water supply required for laminar flow is provided by a standpipe on the overflow. Valves can be used to adjust the flow rate.
The pressures in laminar flow are measured with twin tube manometers. In turbulent flow, the pressure is read on a dial-gauge manometer.
- The training set should have its own storage, pump and table, so it should be able to work on its own.
- With the test setup, the pressure losses caused by internal friction and friction between the liquid and the wall during the flow in the pipes should be measured.
- With the test setup, the creep factor should be able to be calculated.
- The test unit should include a small diameter pipe section where laminar and turbulent flow is produced.
- Constant pressure in the water source required for laminar flow should be made of special piping.
- Valves should be used to adjust the flow rate.
- Pressures in laminar flow should be measured with double tube manometers.
- In turbulent flow, the pressure is read on a manometer gauge.
- The experimental unit should have its own table with wheels.
- Pipe section length: should be 400mm.
- Pipe inner diameter should be Ø: 3mm.
- Supporting tank: should be about 2L.
- Column manometer: 2×400 mmSS
- Differential pressure: 1x 0… 0.4bar
- The devices should be delivered fully assembled tested and ready to operate.
- Measuring the pressure loss in laminar flow
- Measuring the pressure loss in turbulent flow
- Determining the critical Reynolds number
- Determination of pipe friction factor
- Comparison of the actual pipe friction factor with the theoretical friction factor