Hydrostatics (Fluid Properties) Apparatus


Hydrostatics is the study of fluids at rest. Phenomena occurring as a result of hydrostatic pressure are analyzed and the force effect determined. Hydrostatic aspects play a crucial role in various areas of engineering, such as in plumbing and domestic engineering, in pump manufacturing, in aerospace and in shipping (buoyancy, load on the sides of a ship).

The FM 151 trainer can be used to conduct experiments in the field of hydrostatics, such as ground pressure measurement or demonstrating Boyle’s law. Determining the center of pressure completes the range of experiments. Furthermore, experimental units for studying capillarity and buoyancy are included. The hydrostatic pressure and surface tension are measured. Additionally, one experiment uses a Pitot tube and a tube for static pressure to study the pressure components in a flowing fluid.

To make the functions and processes visible, the tanks and the experimental units use a transparent design. Tanks and pipes are made entirely of plastic. Set includes FM-100.13, FM-110.01, FM-110.02, FM-110.03, FM-110.04 and FM-110,05 experiments

Various pressure gauges are available for measuring pressure and differential pressure of the liquid fluid, such as a Pitot tube, tube for static pressure a pressure sensor with digital display, twin tube manometers or a differential pressure manometer. A diaphragm manometer and a Bourdon tube manometer indicate the pressure of the gaseous fluid.

The trainer has its own air and water supply. The closed water circuit includes a supply tank with submersible pump. A compressor is included to generate positive and negative pressures for the experiments with air.


  1. The training set consist of equipment that can be used independently.
  2. The trainer includes a closed water circuit with a tank and a two-stage centrifugal pump.
  3. The training set calculate pressure losses in pipes and draw pressure curves.
  4. The training set consist of different pipe materials and pipes of different diameters.
  5. Transparent PU pipes and galvanized steel pipes is used as pipe material.
  6. The training set consist of elbow pipe section, contraction and expansion pipe section, replaceable valves and fittings.
  7. The length of the pipe test zone should be 2 m.
  8. There should be at least three pressure measurement points in each pipe test zone.
  9. There should be a rotameter and a volumetric measuring tank to measure the water flow rate during the test and make comparison for calibration.
  10. The system should have a replaceable needle valve, shut-off valve, and ball valve with different opening characteristics.
  11. A stopwatch set should be supplied with the set to be used during volume flow measurements.
  12. The set should have tube manometers, Bourdon tube pressure gauge and differential pressure sensor for pressure and differential pressure measurements.
  13. Pressure measuring points should be designed in a ring shape for accurate pressure measurement.
  14. There should be a movable tube manometer panel on the set.
  15. Training set should have 90o elbow connections.


  • Basics of flow measurement
  • Basics of pressure measurement
  • Determination of the friction factor for different pipe materials and diameters
  • Finding the resistance coefficients of elbows, expansion piece and contraction piece
  • Pressure losses and opening characteristics of valves and fittings

Technical Specifications

  • Power consumption of the 2-stage centrifugal pump should be: 0.50 kW.
  • The maximum flow rate of the pump should be: 4.5m3 / h.
  • The head of the pump: should be a maximum of 15 m.
  • Transparent pipe diameters used in the set should be Q: 32x2mm, 25x2mm.
  • The steel pipe diameter used in the set should be 1/2”.
  • Elbow pipe section diameter: should be 25x2mm.
  • Contraction pipe diameter: 20x2mm
  • Expansion section pipe diameter: 32x2mm
  • Pipe section diameter with valves and fittings: 20x2mm
  • Volumetric measurement tank: It should be 20L.
  • Main water tank: should be 110L.
  • Pressure measurement ranges: (-1bar… +1.5 bar)
  • Differential pressure: 1 piece (0mbar… +/- 350mbar)
  • Column manometer: 8 pieces (0mmSS… 1000 mmSS)
  • Flow rate: 1 piece (400 L / h… 4000 L / h)
  • Required energy infrastructure for the device: (230V 50Hz, 1 phase)
  • The devices should be delivered fully assembled tested and ready to operate.