Flow Through Pipes and Fittings


To determine head loss associated with pipes and fittings. Smooth pipes of at least two different diameters. At least one Rough pipe of known roughness


  1. Pressure losses in the piping system
  2. Pressure measurement without interaction via annular chambers
  3. Transparent measuring objects for determining flow rate


  1. To determine head loss associated with pipes and fittings
  2. Smooth pipes of at least two different diameters
  3. At least one rough pipe of known roughness
  4. Minimum pipe lengths of 1 m
  5. Variable flow rates
  6. Loss coefficient for various fittings:
    • 90-degree standard elbows,
    • 45 deg elbow
    • Gate valve
    • Ball valve
    • Globe valve
    • 90-degree long radius bend
    • Sudden enlargement,
    • Sudden contraction,
    • 90-degree T-fitting or Y-fitting
  7. Rotameter for flow measurement,
  8. Digital flow meter
  9. U-tube manometer
  10. Digital differential manometer
  11. Hydraulic bench with a centrifugal pump and a bypass pipe with a valve
  12. Maximum hydraulic Bench Sump tank capacity of 300 liters
  13. Maximum Flow rate range: 60 to 110 Liters/min.
  14. Manual data recording

Learning objectives/experiments

  • Pressure losses in pipes, piping elements and fittings
  • How the flow velocity affects the pressure loss
  • Determining resistance coefficients
  • Opening characteristics of angle seat valve and gate valve Familiarization with various measuring objects for determining flow rate: Venturi nozzle
  • Orifice plate flow meter and measuring nozzle

Scope of delivery

  • One (1) experimental unit
  • Two (2) shut-off devices (angle seat valve, gate valve)
  • One (1) Venturi nozzle
  • One (1) orifice plate flow meter or measuring nozzle
  • One (1) set of hoses
  • One (1) set of tools
  • One (1) set of instructional material