Energy Losses in Piping Elements


When water flows through a pipe system, the flow resistances causes pressure losses to occur at pipe fittings and valves and fittings.

The FM 204 unit can be used to investigate and visualize the pressure losses in pipe elements. The experimental unit can be used to assess how different pipe geometries affect the flow.

The FM 204 experimental unit comprises a pipe section containing several pipe elements with different flow resistances, as well as a contraction and enlargement piece. There is also a ball valve integrated in the pipe. There are pressure measuring points with annular chambers upstream and downstream of the pipe elements, which ensure accurate pressure measurement.

The pressure measuring points can be connected in pairs to 6 tube manometers in order to determine the pressure loss of a pipe element.


  1. The training set should consist of equipment that can be used independently.
  2. The trainer should include a closed water circuit with a tank and a two-stage centrifugal pump.
  3. The training set should be able to calculate pressure losses in pipes and draw pressure curves.
  4. The training set should consist of different pipe materials and pipes of different diameters.
  5. Transparent PU pipes and galvanized steel pipes should be used as pipe material.
  6. The training set should consist of elbow pipe section, contraction and expansion pipe section, replaceable valves and fittings.
  7. The length of the pipe test zone should be 2 m.
  8. There should be at least three pressure measurement points in each pipe test zone.
  9. There should be a rotameter and a volumetric measuring tank to measure the water flow rate during the test and make comparison for calibration.
  10. The system should have a replaceable needle valve, shut-off valve, and ball valve with different opening characteristics.
  11. A stopwatch set should be supplied with the set to be used during volume flow measurements.
  12. The set should have tube manometers, Bourdon tube pressure gauge and differential pressure sensor for pressure and differential pressure measurements.
  13. Pressure measuring points should be designed in a ring shape for accurate pressure measurement.
  14. There should be a movable tube manometer panel on the set.


  • Basics of flow measurement
  • Basics of pressure measurement
  • Determination of the friction factor for different pipe materials and diameters
  • Finding the resistance coefficients of elbows, expansion piece and contraction piece
  • Pressure losses and opening characteristics of valves and fittings

Technical Specifications

  • Training set should have 90o elbow connections.
  • Power consumption of the 2-stage centrifugal pump should be: 0.50 kW.
  • The maximum flow rate of the pump should be: 4.5m3 / h.
  • The head of the pump: should be a maximum of 15 m.
  • Transparent pipe diameters used in the set should be Q: 32x2mm, 25x2mm.
  • The steel pipe diameter used in the set should be 1/2”.
  • Elbow pipe section diameter: should be 25x2mm.
  • Contraction pipe diameter: 20x2mm
  • Expansion section pipe diameter: 32x2mm
  • Pipe section diameter with valves and fittings: 20x2mm
  • Volumetric measurement tank: It should be 20L.
  • Main water tank: should be 110L.
  • Pressure measurement ranges: (-1bar… +1.5 bar)
  • Differential pressure: 1 piece (0mbar… +/- 350mbar)
  • Column manometer: 8 pieces (0mmSS… 1000 mmSS)
  • Flow rate: 1 piece (400 L / h… 4000 L / h)
  • Required energy infrastructure for the device: (230V 50Hz, 1 phase)
  • The devices should be delivered fully assembled tested and ready to operate.